Episode 442: Dinosaur tools in Prehistoric Planet

Episode 442: Dinosaur tools in Prehistoric Planet. Anže Rozman and Kara Talve, sign up for from Bleeding Arms Song. They together with Oscar-winning composer Hans Zimmer created the soundscape for Prehistoric Planet.


  • There’s a brand new pachycephalosaur dinosaur, Platytholus clemensi supply
  • A brand new silesaur presentations that they weren’t smaller than different dinosauromorphs supply


Anže Rozman and Kara Talve, two of the composers from the collective at Bleeding Arms Song. They together with Oscar-winning composer Hans Zimmer just lately created the soundscape for Apple TV+ and BBC’s Prehistoric Planet. They received their class within the Hollywood Song in Media Awards and had been nominated for different awards as smartly. They created a number of tools for the display together with the Fats Rex, Hadro Cello, Triserachord, Raptor Violin, and Petrified Picket Xylyophone (proven beneath).


The dinosaur of the day: Zalmoxes

  • Rhabdodontid ornithopod that lived within the Past due Cretaceous in what’s now Romania (Hateg Basin)
  • Rhabdodontids had been ornithopods that lived within the Past due Cretaceous in what’s now Europe, when Europe used to be a sequence of islands
  • Appeared like a regular ornithopod, roughly like Iguanodon however smaller. Walked on two legs, had lengthy fingers, an extended tail, an elongated cranium
  • Had a big triangular head and a beak
  • Herbivorous, and will have eaten tricky crops like horsetails and ferns
  • Two species: Zalmoxes robustus and Zalmoxes shqiperorum
  • Kind species is Zalmoxes robustus
  • Zalmoxes subadults discovered on Hateg Island, that vary from 6.6 to 7.9 toes (2 to two.4 m) lengthy
  • Zalmoxes shqiperorum used to be stockier and bigger
  • Zalmoxes shqiperorum is bigger, with one subadult discovered that’s 8.2 toes (2.5 m) lengthy
  • One juvenile Zalmoxes is 9.5 toes (2.9 m) lengthy
  • As it’s a Hateg dinosaur, has been regarded as a dwarf dinosaur, however no longer everybody has the same opinion
  • In 2009, Zoltan Csiki and others wondered whether or not the Hateg dinosaurs had been in reality dwarfs
  • Did histology on lengthy bones of Zalmoxes specimens
  • Discovered 13 expansion marks (LAGs) in a Zalmoxes robustus and seven in a Zalmoxes shqiperorum, in order that they weren’t juveniles
  • Alternatively, additionally discovered the specimens had been nonetheless actively rising once they died, so we haven’t but discovered a completely grown Zalmoxes
  • Discovered Zalmoxes had a sluggish expansion fee
  • In 2012, Attila Osi and others described a rhabdodontid, the oldest recognized one through 15 million years, that lived within the Past due Cretaceous in what’s now Hungary
  • Assigned it to Mochlodon vorosi
  • Did histology and in comparison it to Zalmoxes, and this specimen of Mochlodon is helping display Zalmoxes used to be no longer a dwarf dinosaur
  • Discovered that the ancestral rhabdodontid had a femur lengths of 298–339 mm, which is shut in dimension to the femur of Zalmoxes (which ranged from 320 to 333 mm)
  • Each Mochlodon and Zalmoxes lived on islands, alternatively Mochlodon used to be even smaller
  • Mochlodon specimens which can be about 3.9 to five.9 toes (1.2 to at least one.8 m) lengthy have options that point out they’re adults. Alternatively, overdue juvenile Zalmoxes specimens are about 6.5 toes (2 m) lengthy
  • In 2017, Steve Brusatte and others described quite a lot of new Zalmoxes specimens
  • Has been present in more than one spaces, or localities, of the Hateg Basin
  • Each species lived along every different
  • Extra specimens were discovered through the years, and Zalmoxes is now one of the crucial commonplace dinosaurs discovered on Hateg Island
  • About 80% of the cranium of Zalmoxes robustus is understood
  • Many of the skeleton has been discovered
  • No less than 22 Zalmoxes folks were present in only one locality (as much as 25)
  • They didn’t essentially are living in combination, they usually had been discovered unfold all the way through the locality
  • Zalmoxes shqiperorum used to be named in accordance with an incomplete grownup specimen and a few referred fossils, after which later extra fossils had been assigned to Zalmoxes shqiperorum. Alternatively, Brusatte and others stated it used to be laborious to refer fossils to both species as a result of many fossils that had been discovered had been disarticulated and/or remoted, so laborious to inform the place they belonged
  • Additionally, despite the fact that the species have distinctive options, it’s laborious to match them to near family as a result of we don’t have the similar bones of the ones family to match them to. It’s additionally unclear if some variations between the species are on account of particular person variation or ontogeny, and it’s conceivable there’s sexual dimorphism, as Nopcsa had recommended
  • Brusatte et al. stated a complete revision of Zalmoxes “is turning into more and more important” and that learn about has begun, so for his or her paper they authorized that there are two species of Zalmoxes, and referred some specimens to every species
  • Described more than one folks, maximum had been remoted bones
  • Described some enamel that had been greater than the holotype of Zalmoxes, which “illustrate that Zalmoxes, or no less than Z. shqiperorum, may just achieve a slightly massive dimension, even though nonetheless a lot smaller than the rhabdodontid Rhabdodon priscus from Past due Cretaceous faunas in Western Europe”
  • In 2022, Felix Augustin and others discovered two partial braincases in the past regarded as Zalmoxes to in truth be Telmatosaurus
  • To recap, there are two species: Zalmoxes robustus and Zalmoxes shqiperorum
  • Zalmoxes now, however first regarded as Mochlodon robustum
  • Described in 1899 through Franz Nopcsa (Nopcsa referred to Mochlodon, an ornithopod named through H.G. Seeley, present in Austria),
  • Referred to a part of the fabric as Mochlodon suessi and a part of it to Mochlodon robustum
  • Later, in 1915, stated Mochlodon could also be the similar as Rhabdodon and that the diversities had been from sexual dimorphism
  • Nopcsa in comparison the fossils with different ornithopods from Europe and North The us (Camptosaurus) and located it to be very similar to Rhabdodon, present in France
  • In 1990 George Olshevsky corrected the identify to Rhabdodon robustus
  • Named through Weishampel and others in 2003 as Zalmoxes robustus (discovered sufficient variations)
  • Genus identify refers back to the Dacian deity Zalmoxis, who retreated in a crypt for 3 years to be resurrected at the fourth 12 months (very similar to how the fossils had been liberated)
  • Zalmoxes used to be additionally a slave of Pythagoras who traveled to Dacia and turned into a deity
  • Species identify robustus refers to its tough construct
  • In 2003, some other species named Zalmoxes shqiperorum (for the Albanian identify for Albania)
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A laugh Reality:

Glad global metrology day! (Would possibly twentieth) If we used the T. rex Sue’s cranium to outline the duration of 1 “cranium” unit, Ankylosaurus could be about 6–7 skulls lengthy & Apatosaurus could be about 15–16 skulls lengthy.

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